International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2024-04-17T10:02:16+00:00 Thomas Campbell Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> The Impact of Perceived Digital Celebrities on Live-Stream Shopping Intention of Shopee Live Users in Jakarta 2024-04-09T10:58:48+00:00 Adrian Hartanto Rodhiah Rodhiah <p style="text-align: justify;">In the age of digital advancement, shopping activities have changed, one of which is live streaming. Consumers do not need to come to the store to see a product in person, but are represented by a streamer. Through the streamer, the buyer gets a picture of a product before deciding to buy. This study aims to analyze the effect of perceived digital celebrity on live stream shopping intention with the mediation of perceived enjoyment and perceived utility. The sample selection method in this study uses non-probability sampling using purposive sampling technique. The sample size in this study was 260 respondents who were users who had watched Shopee Live live streams and lived in Jakarta. Data collection using a questionnaire distributed online via Google Form. The results showed a positive and significant influence for perceived digital celebrity on live-stream shopping intention, perceived enjoyment and perceived utility can partially mediate between perceived digital celebrity and live-stream shopping intention. Through this research, it can provide information for online sellers to increase perceived enjoyment and perceived utitly so that it can foster purchasing intentions on live steam shopping and can increase sales.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Citizen’s Satisfaction with the Police in Developing Society 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Gabriel Julien Michael Mathura <p style="text-align: justify;">To develop a harmonious and productive relationship between citizens and the police in Trinidad and Tobago (T&amp;T) it is important to first understand the impact of procedural justice and satisfaction with the police which was the aim of this study. A quantitative research methodology was used with an online survey of eight multiple-choice questions with responses aligned to a Likert scale. The results showed that 47.5% of participants were not satisfied with the police service, and only 10% felt very satisfied. The results indicated that officer did not use the correct procedures, disrespectful, undignified, unfair, lack transparency and inconsistent. The results highlighted the need for practice and policy changes in the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service especially during a contact with citizens. It was suggested that there was the need for continuous professional development (CPD) towards improving officer's skills, knowledge, and behaviour (KSB) which could enhance officers and citizens relations. Key Words: Satisfaction; Policing; Citizens; Trinidad and Tobago; Post-Colonial.</p> 2024-04-08T20:07:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Profile of the Tutor Teacher in Higher Education: A Qualitative Analysis 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Jennifer Quiroz Fragoso <p style="text-align: justify;">Currently, society demands from higher education young graduates capable of entering the world of work possessing skills that allow them to develop fully in professional life, the university will therefore be responsible for preserving personal integrity, motivation, orientation towards improvement, permanence and academic perseverance of young people who enter the university, in which the tutor teacher plays a fundamental role as long as the established tutoring is action-oriented and this can be known by analyzing the qualitative aspects of tutoring, the framework of communication, empathy and collaboration that the tutor teacher develops is his daily work, which will allow the academic quality of the students to be raised through this process of group and personalized accompaniment. To prepare the state of the matter, various materials were consulted such as theses, research, refereed articles and presentations, all by Mexican and foreign authors, publications were found that will serve to prepare the state and cited authors and others were consulted in a more superfluous manner. publications that were discarded due to their lack of relevance to the project. This information will be presented by the author emphasizing the relevance for the research, with criteria such as social relevance, academic relevance, conceptualization and theoretical support.</p> 2024-04-08T20:15:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Law Enforcement Effectiveness Against the Practice of Money Politics on the Implementation of Regional Head Elections in 2018, in Lahat District (Case Study of Judgment Number: 238/Pid.Sus/2018/PN.Lht) 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 khairunissa khairunissa Suharyono Suharyono Helwan Kasro <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigates the effectiveness of law enforcement measures in curbing the pervasive practice of money politics during the implementation of regional head elections in 2018, focusing on the case of Lahat District. Money politics, characterized by using financial resources to influence electoral outcomes, poses a significant threat to the democratic process and the integrity of elections. The research aims to assess law enforcement agencies' strategies to counteract and prevent the infiltration of money politics in the electoral landscape. The methodology involves a comprehensive analysis of legal frameworks, law enforcement initiatives, and their practical implications in the Lahat District during the 2018 regional head elections. Data will be collected through interviews with key stakeholders, including law enforcement officials, election commission representatives, political candidates, and community leaders.Reviewing relevant documents, reports, and media coverage will also contribute to a holistic understanding of the electoral process dynamics. The findings of this study aim to provide insights into the challenges faced by law enforcement agencies in the Lahat District and propose recommendations for enhancing their effectiveness in addressing the issue of money politics. Understanding the specific context and experiences of the Lahat District can contribute to the development of targeted strategies that can be applied more broadly to strengthen the overall integrity of regional head elections in Indonesia and beyond. Ultimately, the research aspires to advance transparent, fair, and democratic electoral practices by mitigating the influence of illicit financial activities on the political process.</p> 2024-04-08T20:23:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Flashcard Strategy Role in Teaching English Vocabulary: A Systematic Review 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Qusay Mahdi Mutar <p style="text-align: justify;">This systematic review investigates how&nbsp;flashcards function in different educational contexts to teach vocabulary. The study summarizes data from empirical research released in the last three years, which are from 2021–2023. It focuses&nbsp;on how flashcard-based interventions affect vocabulary acquisition, retention, and overall teaching outcomes. The findings provide insights into the advantages, limitations, and best practices associated with employing flashcards in vocabulary instruction.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Service Delivery Protests in the South African Government 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Mahlatse Ragolane <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>T</em>he social insecurity present in the nation has impeded the desired democratic system from thriving in various communities due to the lack of progress since its inception. The municipal authorities continue to grapple with governance and service provision issues within their communities. The 1994 victory sparked anticipation and excitement in society, leading to the expectation of policy changes and the rectification of past imbalances. However, the situation has resulted in discourse, inequality, and conflict among communities and state institutions. Municipal authorities have been at the centre of service delivery protests and their inability to address the needs of the communities they serve. Protests have erupted at all levels of government, with the majority becoming violent and fueled by various motivations. This study aims to evaluate relative deprivation and community protests within the South African context and to explore their relationship. Furthermore, it seeks to provide possible recommendations on how to address this phenomenon. The study posits that service delivery protests are influenced by relative deprivation, which has persisted due to inadequate service delivery. The paper suggests that inclusive policies that encourage public participation and foster trust in state-society relations can alleviate deprivation and protests. The study used a qualitative approach, gathering data from secondary sources and materials.</p> 2024-04-08T20:45:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Motive Evidence in Premeditated Murder Cases 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Muhammad Fikrillah Amir Uddin Rina Khairani Pancaningrum <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study is to investigate the role of proving motive in cases of premeditated murder, as well as to determine the significance of proving motive in such cases. This research falls under the category of normative legal research, employing a statutory approach, conceptual approach, and case approach. The findings of this study reveal that proving motive in premeditated murder serves three main functions. Firstly, it helps establish the involvement of individuals in criminal activities. Secondly, it assists in determining the elements of criminal liability. Lastly, it plays a crucial role in determining the severity of punishment. Consequently, proving motive holds a fundamental position in establishing criminal acts, particularly in cases of premeditated murder. The position of motive in premeditated murder necessitates the presentation of various arguments, as outlined in this thesis. One key argument is the essentiality and necessity of motive in proving the core offense of "intentionally" as stipulated in Article 340 of the premeditated murder statute.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Employee Engagement in the Relationship between Staff Morale and Employee Wellbeing of Nurses in the South African Public Hospitals 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Lulama Mabe Mphoreng Magdeline Mmako Ilze Swarts <p style="text-align: justify;">Employee engagement is essential for corporate success and is a requirement for gaining and retaining a competitive edge in public hospitals. This study assesses the role of employee engagement on the relationship between staff morale and employee wellbeing of nurses in public hospitals. A quantitative approach using self-administered questionnaires was applied to 461 nurses in the public hospitals of six provinces in South Africa for data collection. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) application was used to analyse the data obtained in the research. Ethical considerations were applied throughout the research process. Employee engagement was significantly and partially related to staff morale and employee wellbeing, and staff morale and employee wellbeing were significantly and related to employee engagement. Furthermore, the study determined that employee engagement has a mediating and moderating role in the relationship between staff morale and employee engagement. The study concluded that is that management needs managers should bring teamwork, motivation, trust, engagement, growth, and development to their employees, to identify their believes, hope, values, interests, and needs and know to what extent it matches with the hospital values, believes and goals.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of the State Apparatus in Following Up on Indications of Corruption to Reduce Corruption Rates Case Study of Ogan Ilir Palembang 2024-04-09T10:58:49+00:00 Ali Wijaya Erli Salia Abdul Latif Mahfuz <p style="text-align: justify;">Corruption is a severe threat to the development of a country. The crucial role of the state apparatus in following up on indications of corruption to reduce corruption rates is the main focus of this paper, using a case study in Ogan Ilir, Palembang. This study investigates strategies and concrete steps the state apparatus takes in tackling the region's corruption. An in-depth analysis of the local situation reveals the importance of oversight and transparency in government institutions, ensuring accountability and preventing corrupt practices. Furthermore, efforts to strengthen the legal system and fair law enforcement play a crucial role in reducing corruption. This case study also highlights the active participation of the community in supporting efforts to eradicate corruption and raising awareness of the dangers of corruption for sustainable development. This analysis confirms the importance of integrity and ethics in the bureaucracy, which is the foundation for building a clean and corruption-free system. By strengthening the role of the state apparatus and supporting community participation, Ogan Ilir, Palembang, and other regions can step towards better change, reduce corruption, and create a more just and prosperous country for all its citizens.</p> 2024-04-08T22:01:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the Role of Agribusiness in the Indonesian Economy 2024-04-09T10:58:50+00:00 Rita Feni Edy Marwan Edi Efrita Neti Kesumawati Riyanto Efendi <p style="text-align: justify;">Agribusiness is an important support in national economic development. This research aims to determine the complete agribusiness system that is interrelated with economic activities. This research methodology is a literature review which is based on Indonesian government regulations. The results of this research show that agribusiness has a strategic role in the formation of GDP, employment, international trade, regional economic development, national food security, environmental preservation, and equal distribution of development results. In the development and implementation of agribusiness that is already underway, there are still many obstacles. To solve very complex economic problems, especially in the agricultural sector, Indonesia requires sharpening (focusing) economic development strategies which are expected to be able to provide solutions to existing problems. So synergy is needed in the agribusiness sector, namely between agriculture, plantations, animal husbandry, fisheries, and forestry with the development of upstream and downstream agricultural industries as well as the development of related service sectors therein.</p> 2024-04-08T22:09:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Level of Economic Development and National Policies in Mexico and Nigeria (1970-2018): A Comparative Analysis of Growth and Institutions 2024-04-11T21:32:51+00:00 Omolara Adebimpe Adekanbi <p style="text-align: justify;">The research compares Mexico and Nigeria's growth and development disparities using Sen and Collier's frameworks by examining various factors. It aims to propose policies on interest rates, FDI, external debt, government spending on health, education, and welfare. Results highlight positive impacts on Mexico's GNI from external debt, government spending, and FDI, and in Nigeria, all variables except interest rates positively affect GNI. Key recommendations include reducing Nigeria's debt by investing in bonds, using domestic debts and for both countries; enhancing welfare through Progresa, transparency in expenditure using online reporting, and infrastructure; boosting income and employment in Mexico with knowledge transfer, innovation, and transport improvements; and addressing violence by alleviating poverty through proposed subsidy programs and anti-corruption measures.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of Regent Regulation Concerning the Determination of the Amount of Housing and Transport Allowances for Leaders and Members of the Regional People's Representative Council 2024-04-09T10:58:50+00:00 Hilwen Hilwen Sri Suatmiati Khalisah Hayatuddin <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examines the practical implementation of Regent Regulation, which focuses on determining houses and transport allowances for leaders or members of the Regional People's Representative Council (DPRD). The regulation, enacted to address issues related to financial compensation for public officials, holds significance in ensuring fair and transparent remuneration practices while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining document analysis of the regulation and supporting documents with interviews and surveys involving key stakeholders, including council members, administrative officials, and community representatives. The investigation aim to assess the effectiveness of&nbsp; the regulation in achieving its intended objectives, uncover potential challenges faced during its implementation, and gauge the perception of various stakeholders regarding its adequacy and fairness of the determined allowances.&nbsp;</p> 2024-04-08T23:06:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Corporatization of Professional Bodies: A Comparative Study of the Chartered Institute of Government Finance Audit and Risk Officers (CIGFARO) and Institute of Local Government Management (iLGM) 2024-04-09T10:58:50+00:00 Mpilo Ngubane <p style="text-align: justify;">Corporatization of professional bodies may be seen as a new phenomenon, but it has been a call since the 1980s when many professional bodies started experiencing decline. Although corporatization, as practice, is a private sector concept, applying it in the management and administration of professional bodies is likely to provide a better turn-around in how professional bodies are managed. Part of corporatization is having corporate governance structures including ethics codes which are meant to professionalize professional bodies. This study therefore compared the Chartered Institute of Government Finance Audit and Risk Officers (CIGFARO) and Institute of Local Government Management (iLGM) with a view to establish if they apply corporatization.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Influence of Profitability and Capital Structure on Company Value with Dividend Policy as a Moderating Variable in Consumer Companies which is listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the 2018-2021 Period 2024-04-09T10:58:50+00:00 Cindy Tanaka Nagian Toni Aremi Evanta br Tarigan <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to examine and analyze the company value of consumer companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. The variables tested include Profitability, Capital Structure, Company Value with Dividend Policy as a Moderating variable. This research involves consumer companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the 2018-2021 period. Sample selection was carried out using the purposive sampling method. The data used is external data, obtained from the site The data analysis process was carried out using PLS Algorithm calculations using SmartPLS and then hypothesis testing was carried out. Results. Research shows that Profitability has a positive relationship towards Company Value, Capital Structure has no effect on Company Value, Dividend Policy is unable to mediate the influence of Profitability and Car Structure on Company Value.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Crime Prevention Through an Environmental Design Approach in Reducing Crime Rates in Indonesia 2024-04-09T10:58:50+00:00 Muh. Zafri Ramadhoan Amiruddin Amiruddin Ufran Ufran <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to analyze crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia and to analyze weaknesses in crime prevention through an environmental design approach in reducing the rate of crime in Indonesia. By using normative legal research methods. The results of this research show that crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia, Indonesia has never used the concept of crime prevention through an environmental design approach in crime prevention policies in Indonesia. Because the CPTED concept is a crime prevention concept that is not known in Indonesia. The concept that is often known as Secure Guard Area is a concept that offers an area where crime prevention mechanisms are completely handed over to security officers. Crime prevention in the concept of security officers must have the ability to carry out territorial areas, the ability to carry out surveillance, must be able to have the ability to portray a good image of the environment, so that officers are able to provide comfort and security for the areas in their duties. Then, the weaknesses in the crime prevention approach through environmental design in reducing the rate of crime in Indonesia, in understanding the weaknesses in CPTED, the author divides them into three weaknesses, namely theoretical weaknesses are a process and not a result and in practice the CPTED process often fails to consider the risk of crime in detail. adequate. Juridical weaknesses and practical weaknesses.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Expert Testimony in Law Enforcement of Corruption in the Procurement of Goods and Services in Handling Emergencies 2024-04-09T11:00:19+00:00 Sugianto Sugianto Amiruddin Amiruddin Diangsa Wagian <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this research is to examine the extent of regulations regarding the utilization of expert information in the investigation of corrupt criminal acts, as stipulated in Law Number 8 of 1981 on the Criminal Procedure Code. Additionally, it aims to analyze the use of expert information in the investigation of corrupt criminal acts related to the procurement of goods and services in emergency situations. The research employs normative legal research methods. The findings reveal the role of expert testimony in the criminal law enforcement process based on Law Number 8 of 1981 on the Criminal Procedure Code. Expert testimony can serve as evidence in a criminal case in two possible ways: as expert testimony itself or as documentary evidence. Expert testimony is presented in court under oath or affirmation according to the individual's religious beliefs. On the other hand, documentary evidence is provided during an examination by an investigator or public prosecutor, in the form of a report that takes into account the oath taken when assuming the position or job. Furthermore, the use of expert information in elucidating the investigation process of corrupt criminal acts in the procurement of goods and services during emergency situations holds non-binding power. Expert information serves as a tool to mitigate the potential for human negligence. By drawing upon the information provided by experts, a coherent narrative can be constructed to uncover the truth, with the expectation that the Mataram Police Criminal Investigation Unit can reach a judgment (ratio decidendi). From the expert statement from PBJ, the Mataram Police Criminal Investigation Unit obtained this expert statement which was able to explain the case currently being handled regarding a criminal act of corruption at the NTB Province Small and Medium Enterprise Cooperative Service, that there had been a conflict of interest of the parties involved, either directly or indirectly.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Siliguri Corridor: A Historical Analysis of Geo-Political Vulnerability in Eastern India 2024-04-09T11:12:17+00:00 Aditya Kant Ghising <p style="text-align: justify;">The Siliguri Corridor, a mostly geo-strategic term often associated with the security architecture of eastern India, is an important geo-political space that has received special attention from experts on security, strategy and foreign policy ever since India’s independence. It has been touted as one of the most vulnerable areas of India from a security perspective, as well as the gateway to the country’s north-east and by extension, towards Southeast Asia. The current structure and geography of this corridor is a result of gradual additions as well as losses of territory in its history. This includes various policies implemented under the British colonial rule in India, followed by subsequent treaties after independence. This paper studies the genesis of the Siliguri Corridor and in the process makes an attempt to understand the historical background of settlement, migration and development of the areas which compose this corridor. It also analyzes the impact of colonialism and its contributions towards the continuing security dynamics in the region. To achieve this, a detailed study of the addition of these areas into the Indian subcontinent throughout various stages of its history has been focused upon. The paper also contributes towards addressing the dearth of literature in understanding the exact area and geographical extent of the corridor with the objective of highlighting its structural composition to add to the discourse on its security which so far has been limited to the widely discussed idea that at its narrowest, the corridor is only about 20 to 22 kilometers wide.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Workers' Perceptions Towards the Establishment of Workplace Forums in South African Industries 2024-04-09T11:34:20+00:00 Prudence Marty Zikhali <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of workers towards the establishment of workplace forums in South Africa industries. Workplace forums are committees of employees elected by employees for employees in a workplace. These bodies promote the interests of all employees in the workplace, not only of trade union members. In this study, 30 respondents (management and employees of all races and gender) were selected to participate from 230 employees using a simple random technique. The cluster system was used to divide the industry into departments from which the final respondents were selected. The observation method and most of the official records and statistics were also used to collect and solicit the necessary information for this research. The central view held by this study was that workplace forums are very useful in achieving efficiency in the workplace and that they help in improving trade union activities. The critical view of the study was that there are few workplace forums established in South African industries. This showed that, the industries should provide some possible measures for the establishment of the workplace forums to reduce industrial unrest. But the problem is that trade unions did not encourage this because they see workplace forum as a threat to them. Nonetheless, special attention was on workplace forums because it was taken as a second channel of representation which intended to be one of the primary instruments of the Labour Relations Act (LRA) to democratise the workplace. The study recommended that; workplace forums should be established in all industries. Trade unions should be involved in the workplace forums. There should be the prevention of the establishment of other forums within one organisation. Management and workers should work together to prevent impending conflict.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis Study of Acquisition of Rights to Land Resulting from Beach Reclamation in Bima City 2024-04-09T11:46:53+00:00 Zulfikar Rangga Utama Arba Arba Muh Risnain <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to analyze the process of implementing the acquisition of rights to land resulting from coastal reclamation in the city of Bima and to examine the legal implications of the reclamation activities along the Bima coastline. The study adopts an empirical legal research approach, incorporating statutory, conceptual, and socio-legal perspectives. Both library and field data are utilized in the research process. The findings of the study reveal the procedural intricacies involved in obtaining rights to land resulting from coastal reclamation in Bima City. The acquisition of these rights necessitates alignment with the regional spatial plan (RTRW) and relevant laws and regulations. The implementation unfolds in two stages: initial unauthorized landfilling and subsequent issuance of certificates for reclaimed beaches, constituting an illegal act. The legal implications of such unlawful beach reclamation in Bima City manifest in several ways. Firstly, the Ownership Rights and HGB (building use rights) certificates authorized by the National Land Agency (BPN) may be considered illegitimate. Secondly, the Bima City government faces restrictions in collecting Property Tax (PBB) and Land and Building Acquisition Duty (BPHTB) taxes on land resulting from the illegal reclamation.</p> 2024-04-09T11:46:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Revisiting Philosophical Dichotomies in South Africa's Post-Colonial Policing Foundational Structures: A Retrospective Analysis 2024-04-14T19:54:05+00:00 Lesiba Lolly Motsepe <p style="text-align: justify;">This article examines the historical and medieval policing paradigms in South Africa, focusing on the integration of diverse policing styles worldwide, including indigenous precolonial African policing systems. Irrespective of efforts to modernize policing, remnants of Eurocentric and Americentric approaches persist, rooted in colonial and apartheid legacies. Through qualitative document analysis, it's evident that within contemporary policing in South Africa, there are similarities influenced by historical practices driven by colonisation, racism, and oppressive ideologies that excluded the indigenous majority. To a certain extent, these influences impede effective crime resolution. The article advocates for a paradigm shift towards blending a resource-based policing model and African pre-historic policing systems (syncretic), diverging from the prevailing business-centric approach. This model emphasizes continuous adaptation to crime trends, situational responses, and community dynamics, incorporating multidimensional factors such as historical context, social policies, and cultural influences. Embracing this model offers South Africa a more inclusive and effective approach to hybridised policing tailored to its unique challenges and persistent aspirations.</p> 2024-04-14T19:54:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Convergences and Divergences of Special Education and Social Education 2024-04-14T20:11:15+00:00 Inês Oliveira João Casal Luís Picado <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to assess the convergences and divergences of Special Education and Social Education in a school context, seeking to investigate the relationship between these two domains in a school context and understand how Higher Social Education Technicians (TSES) and teachers of Special Education perceive these relationships in the work they develop with students. A sample composed of seven Special Education teachers and seven Higher Social Education Technicians (TSES) from different geographical areas of Portugal was studied. As a data collection instrument, we used the questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The results obtained made it possible to sustain the relationship and complementarity between Special Education and Social Education, looking at the student as a whole, considering the educational, social, personal, cultural and psychological dimensions.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Processing of Forensic Investigative Leads in Criminal Investigations Conducted by the South African Police Service 2024-04-14T20:38:00+00:00 J H Smith J S Horne <p style="text-align: justify;">The adverse impact of crime undermines not only a nation’s peace and stability, but also the safety and security of its communities. Furthermore, crime affects a nation’s economy, its citizens’ standard of living, and its standing with prospective foreign investors and tourists. Forensic investigative leads (FILs) are crucial in the investigation and resolution of crime. The South African Police Service (SAPS) allocates significant resources to analyse exhibit materials and forensic databases containing vital forensic biometric information. By conducting comparative searches in these databases, FILs are generated and communicated to detectives to facilitate investigation, detection and conviction. This article does an in-depth analysis of local and international literature, examines data from the CAS/ICDMS system and reports on qualitative interviews conducted with SAPS detectives, forensic examiners, and international forensic experts. It delineates the consequences of the underutilisation and an inadequate understanding of FILs on detection rates within the criminal justice system. The research not only identifies barriers to reporting and utilising FILs, but also recommends ways to enhance the regulatory framework, information technology systems, and detective training programmes within the SAPS. Emphasising adherence to ISO standards to maintain FIL reliability during forensic examinations, the study underscores the resource constraints faced by detectives, which affect FIL utilisation and impede the desired outcomes in detection and conviction rates. The article proposes that the SAPS can overcome these challenges by prioritising resource allocation to detective forensic investigative units to enable them to follow up and investigate FILs.</p> 2024-04-14T20:38:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of the Principle of “Lex Specialis Derogate Legi Generalis” in Regulations on Administrative Measures of State Administrative Disputes (State Administrative Decision Case Study Number: 23/G/KI/2022/PTUN.SMG) 2024-04-15T21:35:41+00:00 Maria Paulina Rosari Prayitno Kartika Widya Utama <p style="text-align: justify;">Application of adminitrative effort after the 2014 law no. 30 years of government administration is followed by regulatory administration The state enterprises governing administrative efforts make a concerted effort to implement the administrative effort itself. This research is meant to know Implementation of a administrative effort that should fit into the rule that Apply and apply principles Lex specialists derogate generalis In the verdict Number: 23/G/KI/2022/PTUN.SMG For pursuing this administrative effort. method The study is normative jurisdiction using the associated associated associated associated with law and literature approaches. The results of the study suggest that administrative efforts are being made to settle disputes between people directly between the body and the administration. The facts on the field judge have applied Lex specialist derogate legi generalis So in the verdict number: 23/G/KI/2022/PTUN.SMG The judge dismissed any charges filed.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of Beneficial Ownership in Corporations to Prevent the Crime of Money Laundering in Accordance with Law Number 8 of 2010 2024-04-15T21:55:41+00:00 Dede Indra Permana Soediro Joko Setiyono <p style="text-align: justify;">The era of globalization influences the development of the world economy and one of them is the existence of many forms of business associations, in this case called corporations. Corporations are organized groups and/or assets, whether they are legal entities or non-legal entities. Corporations are often used as a place or business turnover for the proceeds of crime which is called money laundering. Crimes that are often committed by corporations are crimes related to money laundering. To prevent and eradicate the crime of money laundering, corporations must register their beneficial owners. A beneficial owner is an individual who can appoint or dismiss directors, commissioners, administrators, managers or supervisors of a corporation, has the ability to control the Corporation, is entitled to and/or receive benefits from the Corporation either directly or indirectly, is the actual owner of the funds or shares of the Corporation and/or fulfill the criteria as intended in the Presidential Regulation. The method used in this research is normative juridical, which is research using statutory regulations as study material. The data collection technique used by researchers in this research is a library study technique where data is obtained from scientific writings and research in articles and other journals. In order to prevent and eradicate the crime of money laundering, Law Number 8 of 2010 concerning the Prevention and Eradication of the Crime of Money Laundering was issued, as well as Presidential Decree Number 13 of 2018 concerning the Application of the Principle of Recognizing the Benefits of Corporations in the Context of Preventing and Eradicating the Crime of Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing Crime. When establishing a corporation, the beneficial owners of the corporation must be registered. The hope of this regulation is to prevent and eradicate criminal acts of money laundering carried out by corporations under the pretext or business reasons of corporate businesses.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Refugee Women’s Entrepreneurship: A Concept Analysis 2024-04-15T22:12:37+00:00 Areej Al-Hamad Caitlin Gare Yasin Mohammad Yasin Kateryna Metersky <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This paper aims to conceptually define refugee women's entrepreneurship in host countries, filling a literature gap on its gendered aspects and effects on well-being and integration. It seeks to clarify this concept and its impact on refugee women's empowerment, autonomy, and community contribution.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Employing the Walker and Avant (2011) method, this analysis methodically reviews literature on refugee women's entrepreneurship, identifying key attributes, antecedents and consequences of refugee women’s entrepreneurship. The study grounds these findings in real-world cases and theory.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The analysis shows that refugee women pursue entrepreneurship to overcome employment obstacles, using their resilience and creativity. It provides a route to empowerment, independence, and integration, improving well-being and challenging gender norms, while positively impacting the host society's economy and social structure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and implications: </strong>This concept analysis uniquely deepens our insight into refugee women's entrepreneurship, offering an intricate conceptualization that bridges economic, social, cultural, and psychological facets. It positions entrepreneurship as a strategic response to displacement with profound implications for policy and practice. This concept analysis emphasizes the need for policies and programs that support refugee women's entrepreneurship, aiding their integration and enhancing host economies. It also underscores entrepreneurship's role in advancing gender equality, social inclusion, and community resilience, advocating for wider recognition of these entrepreneurs' societal contributions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Refugee women; entrepreneurship; concept analysis; Walker and Avant</strong></p> 2024-04-15T22:12:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Democracy in the Selection of Regional Heads to Fill Occupant Positions During the National Simultaneous Election Transitional Period in 2024 2024-04-15T22:34:42+00:00 Wisnu Eka Saputra Fifiana Wisnaeni <p style="text-align: justify;">The appointment of regional leaders during the transition of multiple national elections in 2024 is a very important matter to discuss. It is based on the fact that the appointment of regional leaders will affect the democratization process in the region. So that the authors are interested in further research. The question discussed in the study is whether the appointment of regional heads during the transition of multiple national elections in 2024 matches the democratic principles and how the ideal concepts of joint capitals in Indonesia. The method of research used in this study is normatif juridical research. Research has shown that in democratic theoretical review, the appointing of regional leaders during the transition of multiple national elections in 2024 does not reflect the application of democratic principles based on democratic parameters.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Christological Reflection on Akan Hamartiology and Reconciliation 2024-04-17T10:02:16+00:00 Isaac Boaheng <p style="text-align: justify;">Sin is a universal phenomenon observed across all societies, no matter their level of development. Each society prescribes moral conduct that prohibits sin and serves to regulate human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a growing tendency to trivialize sin in contemporary Akan (Ghanaian) society, leading to a proliferation of social vices. The erosion of moral values has resulted in a distortion of right and wrong which further exacerbates societal decay. This situation has generated a fresh scholarly interest in the doctrine of sin and how sinful humanity can be reconciled with the divine. For the Akan society of Ghana, such a discourse needs to explore the relationship between sin in African Traditional Religion (ATR) and Christianity because ATR still significantly influences many Akan/African Christians despite the unprecedented numerical growth of Christianity in Africa in recent decades. Through descriptive and comparative research methods, this study sought to understand the concept of sin—its origins, nature, consequences, and remedies—in both Christianity and Akan Traditional Religion. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the concept of sin in both Akan and biblical traditions. Following this, the subject of reconciliation in both traditions is explored. Lastly, the paper critiques aspects of the Akan doctrine of sin and provides a Christological direction for addressing the inadequacies of the Akan belief about sin and reconciliation. The paper contributes to African Christian hamartiology and Christology.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##