International Journal of Social Science Research and Review https://www.ijssrr.com/journal <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> Global Institute for Multidisciplinary Knowledge and Responsible Future, University of Duisburg-Essen en-US International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 2700-2497 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).<br><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> Militarization of Cyberspace and its Implications on National/International Security https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2192 <p>The paramountcy of cyberspace together with the strikingness of globalization have transformed the universe into a global village, fostered businesses around the globe, connected people and enterprises and created immense opportunities for economic related activity, and communication. Consequently, an increasing number of processes are now reliant on the interconnectedness of digital infrastructure, which has resulted to the emerging cyber threats against individual, national, international, commercial and private security actors. Cyberattacks have changed the perception of states towards the cyberspace, necessitating the rising militarization of cyberspace by many countries leading to the advancement and development of their cyber military capabilities. This has created threatening conditions to the national/international security of states such as; the possibility of cyberattacks or cyberwar among states or non-state actors as well as the strategic leadership competition among powerful states such as; the U.S., China and Russia within the cyber domain. The militarization of cyberspace by these states and their perceptions of cyber threats from the advancement of cyber military capabilities of each state based on the realist thinking of international relations/security are formulated debates within this research. The research relies on secondary sources and employs a qualitative research approach, which reviews current literature on the topic under study to aver the potential transformation of the traditional/physical armed conflicts in the world into cyberwarfare as a result of the ongoing militarization of cyberspace constituting the fragility of national/international security.</p> Opeoluwa Adisa Oluyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 7 7 1 16 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2192 The Juridical Review of Investors' Legal Protection in the Development of New Renewable Energy https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2159 <p style="text-align: justify;">Energy is closely related to the economic development of all countries, useful for meeting consumption needs and activities in various sectors. This implication is the impact of the haste in drafting the Presidential Regulation&nbsp; and only focusing on the economic approach. What is the guarantee of legal protection for investors in the development of Renewable Energy in Indonesia? and second, how is the community involved in preparing legal protection for investors in the development of renewable energy? This legal research and writing uses normative juridical methods because the problems and implications contained in legal writing are dominated by differences in policies issued by the government. Indonesia doesn’t yet have a Law on New and Renewable Energy specifically as a main legal source and optimization effort in terms of management and development that regulates new and renewable energy. The idea of ​​energy democracy in developing New and Renewable Energy can be implemented through public participation by opening up transparency in New and Renewable Energy development policies.</p> David Permana Budiono Darminto Hartono Paulus ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 7 7 17 27 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2159 Mindfulness Simplified: A Review of Modern Applications of Mindfulness and Its Appearance During ‘Work from Home’ https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2110 <p style="text-align: justify;">Mindfulness has been applied differently since its emergence in the modern world. This paper sheds light on the recontextualization and simplification of mindfulness and mindfulness-based applications, particularly with the rise of ‘Work from Home’ during and after the COVID19 pandemic. This review contributes to the conversation on and understanding of how mindfulness practices have been infused into day-to-day life and simplified to accommodate the fast-paced modern working life. This paper first reviews the definitions of mindfulness over the years from dictionaries and research papers, then covers the emergence of critiques on the contemporary secular context of mindfulness. Lastly it examines the modern application of mindfulness and how digitalizing the practices has supported in time their expansion during times of crisis. The review concludes that the recontextualization of mindfulness seemed necessary to increase accessibility to its theories and practices, even though it has faced its own share of criticism depending on where and how mindfulness was introduced.</p> Majd Jamal Rasmi Hammoudeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 7 7 28 35 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2110 Law Enforcement of Dangerous Fishing Methods to the Conservation of Inland Fisheries Resources in Public Waters South Sumatera Province https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2143 <p style="text-align: justify;">The inland fisheries resources in the public waters of South Sumatera Province are vital for the ecological balance, biodiversity, and socio-economic well-being of local communities. However, the rampant use of dangerous fishing methods poses a significant threat to these valuable resources. This study investigates the efficacy of law enforcement measures in curbing the practice of hazardous fishing methods and their impact on the conservation of inland fisheries resources. The research employs a multidisciplinary approach, combining legal analysis, ecological assessment, and community engagement strategies. Legal frameworks and regulations regarding fisheries management and conservation are scrutinized to identify gaps and weaknesses. Field surveys assess the prevalence and impact of dangerous fishing methods on inland fisheries resources. The study also examines the enforcement mechanisms, including the effectiveness of patrols, penalties, and community awareness programs.</p> Edy Kastro Siti Mardiyati Hendri S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 7 7 36 45 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2143 Uncovering the Prevalence and Consequences of Cyberbullying Among Female Students as Virtual Violence in Bangladesh https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2167 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study, titled "Uncovering the Prevalence and Consequences of Cyberbullying Among Female Students as Virtual Violence in Bangladesh," aims to assess the prevalence, identify common forms, examine impacts, and develop policy recommendations for addressing cyberbullying. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the study combines quantitative data from an online survey of 90 female students from the University of Dhaka and Eden Mohila College with qualitative data from 10 detailed case studies. The findings reveal that 66.6% of respondents are from middle-income families, 24.4% from higher-income families, and 8% from lower-income families. Alarmingly, all respondents reported experiencing cyberbullying or harassment online, with 72% victimized weekly and 86% daily. Inappropriate comments were encountered by 83.3%, primarily on Facebook (87.77%), Messenger (76%) and others chat-based app and online website. The psychological impact is significant, with 7.8% of respondents experiencing high levels of depression and 48.8% suffering from sleep disturbances. Additionally, 43 respondents reported a reduction in their reputation due to online harassment. The study underscores the urgent need for enhanced digital literacy and awareness, recommending initiatives by the government and the ICT division of Bangladesh to mitigate the effects of cyberbullying.</p> Md. Roni Mridha S M Ashrafuzzaman Sadia Sultana Sara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 7 7 46 57 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2167 The Origin of American, British and Australian English Varieties Due to Distinct Dialects and Accents https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2195 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present research on ‘The origin of American, British and Australian English varieties due to distinct dialects and accents’ is aimed to determine the major cause of these different variety formations due to variations in the dialect and accent in the inner circle of Kachru’s model. The research question is analyzed completely based on phonetics, vowel pronunciation, and syllabification, intonation of asking questions, vocabulary, and spelling. The research is focused on a qualitative approach. The already present information corpus, personal critique, and research analysis are the principal constituents of the experimentation. With the obtained and analyzed data, the researchers verified the cause of distinct English varieties like British, American, and Australian. The obtained result showed that the most obvious difference between British, Australian and American English is in the accent (or pronunciation), especially with vowel sounds. Moreover, another difference lies in the melody and tone, which is the rise and fall of sound, while asking questions.&nbsp; Some other general differences that we figured out were vocabulary and spellings.&nbsp; Hence, we can say that the reason of the origin of American, Australian and British English varieties, which occur in the inner circle of Kachru’s model, is due to the difference in accents and dialects depending heavily upon vowel sound variations, intonations, vocabulary and grammar.</p> Khadija Binte Nasir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 7 7 58 69 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2195 Investigating Juvenile Neglect from the Perspective of Special Education Personnel in the School Community Developmental Issues, Impacts & Interventions https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2112 <p>The investigation of the forms of neglect of a minor and the description of the effects on learning and educational development. In addition, to approach how special education staff can manage incidents of neglect, emphasizing the collaboration of social workers and psychologists, as well as the appropriate interventions that can be implemented. The research was carried out during the months of January, February, and March 2023, and in her, they participated 10 social workers and psychologists, who are working in Assessment and advisory support centers as well as in special school support committees of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and have at least five years’ experience in incidents of neglect of a minor. The personal experiences and options of professionals emerge, who are involved actively in the field, via her qualitative research. Elevated levels of parental stress, psychiatric disorders, addictions, poverty, and a repeated pattern of neglect appear to professionals to be strong predictors of potential neglect. Health problems, learning difficulties, low mental potential, inactive or damaged brain cells, and emotional and behavioral disorders, are some of the serious effects on minors. Observation of a child in the school context, social research, and individual appointments appear to be important factors for professionals to focus on. Child neglect is a complex problem, rooted primarily in dysfunctional family environments. The research highlights proposals and interventions, with the aim of early detection and prevention of incidents of neglect. Preventing child neglect requires addressing risk factors at the individual, family, and societal levels. The collaboration of social workers and psychologists is of key importance, not only for the detection and treatment of cases of minor neglect but also for the support of students and their families in various areas. The current review offers further insights and tools around the topic of child neglect, which is a significant challenge to children's development and well-being.</p> Stavros Fragkos Christiana Bousiou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 7 7 70 88 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2112 The Circular Economic Development Policy Aims to Implement Vietnam's National Strategy on Green Growth https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2046 <p>Circular economy (CE) has become an inevitable trend and an urgent demand in the development process of the world today. In Vietnam, the development of a circular economy is identified as one of the developmental orientations for the country in the coming period. This article delves into an analysis of the actual situation of circular economy development policies in the recent period, thereby proposing comprehensive solutions to implement the national strategy for green growth in Vietnam.</p> Chinh Hong Nguyen Linh Thuy Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 7 7 89 97 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2046 The Effects of E-Procurement Tools on Supply Chain Performance of Procuring Entities in Tanzania: Mediation Effect of Behavioral Intention https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2125 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this study was to look into the impact of an e-procurement tools on the supply chain performance of procuring entities in Tanzania. The study examined the direct and indirect effects of e-sourcing, e-tendering, and e-contract management on supply chain performance. The Social Information Processing theory, the Affect Infusion Model, and the original Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology guided the research. This study used an explanatory cross-sectional survey research design. The study used the positivist research paradigm, with a sample size of 322 respondents obtained through stratified sampling. Data were gathered using a questionnaire and a documentary review. Partial Squares Structural Equation Modeling with the help of SmartPLS 4 software was used for inferential statistics analysis, while IBM SPSS Statistics Version 26 was used for descriptive statistics analysis based on respondent profile data. The findings indicate that e-sourcing, e-tendering, and e-contract management have a positive direct and indirect impact on supply chain performance. The study concludes that, e-sourcing, e-tendering, and e-contracting are variables that influence supply chain performance through the behavioral intention to use e-procurement tools. According to the findings of this study, Tanzanian public procurement bodies should look into the effectiveness of e-procurement tools in ensuring effective and efficient supply chain</p> Deus Nichodemus Shatta Bahati K Mabina Benitha Myamba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-12 2024-07-12 7 7 98 118 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2125 The Identification of Cognitive and Metacognitive in Post-Editing Process of English-Indonesian and Indonesian-English Text Using Thinking-Aloud Protocols https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2183 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article explores the post-editing process in machine-translated texts, focusing on the cognitive and metacognitive strategies employed by translators. The study employed the think-aloud protocol (TAP) to examine the cognitive and metacognitive strategies used by translators during post-editing tasks. The qualitative case study method reveals the cognitive intricacies involved in generating ideas, revising, elaborating, clarifying, retrieving, rehearsing, and summarizing text content. The metacognitive processes of planning, monitoring, and evaluating are also examined, revealing the translator's vigilant oversight of the post-editing endeavor. The findings highlight the dynamic interplay between cognitive and metacognitive faculties, underscoring the translator's role in refining machine-generated translations. The study also highlights the pedagogical implications of cultivating cognitive and metacognitive competencies in translation education, advocating for an integrated approach that fosters critical thinking and linguistic proficiency. The study contributes to the advancement of translation studies, offering insights to optimize the efficacy and quality of translation endeavors in the ever-evolving landscape of linguistic technologies and intercultural communication.</p> Miftahush Shalihah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-22 2024-07-22 7 7 119 132 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2183 Digital Divide or Digital Bridge? Evaluating the Impact of ICT Integration in South Africa’s Rural Schools https://www.ijssrr.com/journal/article/view/2142 <p style="text-align: justify;">The advent of the knowledge economy necessitates the development of specific skills pertinent to 21st-century citizens, such as global competitiveness and the proficient use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for personal and economic advancement. In response, nations worldwide, both developed and developing, are reforming educational curricula and promoting the integration of ICTs in teaching and learning. South Africa is no exception and through policy initiatives aimed to enhance educational opportunities by equipping all schools with laptops and tablets by 2013. Rural schools were to be given particular attention through the development of eLearning. This study explores the alignment between eLearning policy directives and their implementation in rural schools. The research engaged five school principals and one district official, employing semi-structured interviews and document analysis as data collection methods. The findings reveal that teachers lack training to effectively integrate ICTs into educational practices. Despite a revised implementation strategy from 2013 to 2025, progress remains minimal and disproportionately favours smart schools within the province rather than a universal application. The study advocates for the KwaZulu-Natal education department to prioritise comprehensive ICT integration training for teachers across all educational phases. Furthermore, it recommends an expansive distribution of devices in form of tablets and laptops to include primary schools and calls for a national curriculum overhaul to meet the needs of the 21st-century learner. Teachers are also encouraged to proactively seek professional development opportunities independently of departmental offerings.</p> Bhekumuzi Sitwell Mkhonto Betty Claire Mubangizi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-07-22 2024-07-22 7 7 132 145 10.47814/ijssrr.v7i7.2142