International Journal of Social Science Research and Review <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Social Science Research and Review (IJSSRR)&nbsp;ISSN 2700-2497</strong> is an international, open-access journal with double-blind peer-reviewed, which covers all social science disciplines and academic scholarship with a view to sharing information and debate with the widest possible audience.</p> <p>The main areas relevant to the scope of the journal are social science studies and also the journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Politics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Management and&nbsp;Business Studies</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Law</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;Linguistics</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Educational Research</strong>&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>&nbsp;History</strong></li> </ul> <p align="justify">The IJSSRR is generally considered to be the top academic journal. The journal may target scientists, researchers, professors and students from social sciences and humanities research to publish articles that contribute significantly to the body of knowledge. Each issue also contains a large and valuable book review section. Therefore, the journal is published in both print and online versions. IJSSRR&nbsp;accepts submission of mainly four types: Original Articles, Short Communications, Reviews, and Proposals for special issues.</p> <p>The&nbsp;IJSSRR&nbsp;is published bimonthly and the online version is free access and download.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Open Access</li> <li class="show">High visibility</li> <li class="show">Retaining the copyright to your article</li> </ul> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (<br><a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="//" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <br><br></p> (Thomas Campbell) (IJSSRR Technical Support) Thu, 08 Feb 2024 13:15:18 +0000 OJS 60 An Encounter with Hate: Youth-Cultural Right-Wing Extremists <p style="text-align: justify;">The proliferation of intolerant and extremist views includes social media sites that have a far reach for prospective audiences. The focus of the larger research study under discussion is on the anti-Indigenous racism that prevails in Right-Wing Extremist social media communications that appeal to some youth. Youth Cultural Right-Wing Extremist groups use the internet (and the technology associated with social media) as a medium to spread these extremist ideologies.&nbsp; Schools serve as ideal locations to proliferate hateful messages and recruit other students. This paper draws upon poetic inquiry to best describe the researcher’s experiences with the phenomenon under investigation and, in turn, encourage readers to position themselves in the space of the experience.</p> Lorenzo Cherubini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Heads of School Instructional Leadership Practices on Job Satisfaction of Senior High Schools Teachers’ in the North East Region of Ghana <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined the influence of heads of school instructional supervision on the job satisfaction of Senior High School (SHS) teachers in the North East Region of Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. The target population comprised headteachers, assistant heads, heads of departments, and teachers. The study employed purposive, quota, and simple random sampling procedures to choose 150 participants drawn from five SHSs to complete a questionnaire. The internal consistencies of the items in the questionnaire were tested using the Cronbach alpha formula. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and presented in tables. The study found that the level of heads of school instructional supervision generally was low. Also, teachers were generally satisfied with their working conditions and career progression. However, their satisfaction concerning bonuses and retirement plans was generally moderate. It was also discovered that the majority of teachers were generally dissatisfied with the current salary they receive from their employers, and heads of schools' instruction supervision practices have no statistically significant effect on the job satisfaction of teachers. The study recommends that the National Schools Inspectorate Authority (NaSAI) should provide support to SHS principals through capacity building and resources to enhance their oversight of schools. The Ministry of Education should offer incentive packages, such as competitive salaries and bonuses, to motivate SHS teachers to increase their productivity. Finally, stakeholders like GES, GNAT, NAGRAT, and SSNIT should work towards improving the quality of services provided to teachers to motivate them to enhance their&nbsp; productivity</p> Bariham Iddrisu, Christian Evadzi, Ibrahim Mohammed Gunu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 12:35:35 +0000 Marketing Activities and Consumer Behavior Shifting of Generation Z in the Social Media Marketing Era <p style="text-align: justify;">The changes in marketing activities on social media are increasingly diverse, adjusting to changes in user behavior. The generation Z that dominates social media tends to be less boring and more creative than older generations. This shows the need for interpersonal communication from consumers needs to be improved, such as the features available on social media platforms that persuade direct feedback from other users. This phenomenon shows that the use of social media is an important part of improving marketing strategies via online, especially social media platforms. Social media marketing is the process of getting people's attention to engage with the content presented. Digital marketing activities on social media platforms consist of: entertainment, interaction, trend phenomena, adjustments, and word of mouth activities. Social media activities of generation Z indicate different treatments of shopping activities. Generation Z is considered to tend to choose time that is fast, more interactive and sensitive to information on social media. Important things that need to be considered by business actors regarding changes in consumer behavior of generation Z include: brand image, buyer perceived risk, attitudes towards product, buying intention and post purchase satisfaction. The research method used is a quantitative approach, with a questionnaire as a research instrument. Based on the results of the hypothesis testing, it can be concluded that social media activity has the greatest influence on behavior with respect to the product offered; next is perception of brand image and purchase intent behavior. The lowest level of social media activity influences post-purchase behavior, and above it, the perceived risk of a purchase is affected.</p> Nurul Azizah, Siti Ning Farida, Erindah Dimisyqiyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 12:51:37 +0000 Exploring the Factors Contributing Towards Teacher Workplace Bullying Across the Teaching Ranks: Focus on Selected South African Public Schools <p style="text-align: justify;">Teachers are among those professional groups that are at the substantial risk of becoming victims of workplace bullying, yet the knowledge base on why they turn upon one another remains scantily explored. The present qualitative paper, positioned within an interpretivist paradigm, set out to give adequate attention to Teacher Workplace Bullying (TWB) by empirically exploring its contributory factors in South African public schools. To attain the aim, convenient and purposive sampling techniques were used to identify the 16 participants from whom primary data were collected through separable face-to-face interviews. Data were analysed through a Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) process, by means of an inductive reasoning. Steered by Johnson’s ecological model of workplace bullying, data revealed that greatest number of the participants confirmed various factors triggering bullying across the teaching ranks, namely, a lack of mutual respect, and competition for promotional teaching posts was a prominent factor in most of the nine researched schools. The findings further signalled the vulnerability of&nbsp;&nbsp; temporary and newly appointed teachers in comparison to the long serving staff members, and thus present TWB as a territorial phenomenon. In contemplation of preventing TWB, it is recommended that principals take the lead in changing the organisational culture from top down, where mutual respect is normalised, since a change in behaviour and practice may yield desirable results. Principals and teachers’ trade unions should refrain from interfering in the promotion appointments processes as their undue influence perpetuates TWB. This paper augments the restricted knowledge base on TWB and hope to create alertness to the educational policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners about this disparaging form of bullying.</p> Michael Moreti Mahome ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 13:11:25 +0000 Navigating Waves of Innovation: Unveiling Female Entrepreneurship in Coastal Marine Tourism <p style="text-align: justify;">In order to better understand the complicated dynamics of female entrepreneurship in the sector of marine tourism along coasts, this study conducted a qualitative analysis. The primary objective was to comprehensively investigate the challenges, opportunities, and cutting-edge approaches that characterise this vast industry. The study challenge was to sort through the complexities of female entrepreneurship in coastal tourism. The goal was to increase awareness of the significant role that women entrepreneurs play, the challenges they face, and the innovative solutions they employ to thrive in this competitive market. Ten relevant papers' excerpts were utilised in a qualitative analysis. These extracts were extensively examined using NVivo software, a powerful tool that promoted in-depth study and learning. There were several studies carried out, including cluster analysis, word frequency analyses, tree maps, hierarchy charts, and word clouds. The results of the comprehensive qualitative study revealed key conclusions. Words like "women," "tourism," "social," and "family" were frequently used, emphasising the vital role that women play in coastal enterprise and the intricate interaction of social forces. Using the words "lack," "support," and "opportunities" emphasised the challenges and possibilities experienced by female maritime tourism enterprises. The qualitative research as a consequence provided significant fresh views on the complicated world of female enterprise in coastal tourism. It gave a framework for understanding the complexities of this sector and the strategies employed by women to innovate and be successful. These results open the way for future research and efforts targeted at encouraging gender-inclusive entrepreneurship in coastal areas and help us understand the possibilities and difficulties faced by female entrepreneurs better.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Faiza Kiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 13:20:24 +0000 The Determinants of SME’s Tax Compliance in Indonesia <p>Tax compliance is the behaviour shown by taxpayers in fulfilling their tax responsibilities and exercising their rights in taxation. Tax compliance is a problem that still needs to be resolved to date. That can be seen from poor tax performance, namely low tax ratios, tax gaps and tax revenues that still need to meet targets. SMEs have a significant role in the Indonesian economy, are one of the potential taxpayers in the SMES sector, and are the most significant contributor to gross domestic product (GDP) compared to other sectors. Indicators of the success of a country's tax revenue can be seen through the tax ratio. The tax ratio is one of the essential factors for assessing the effectiveness of a country's tax revenues. Indonesia's tax efficiency is lower than many ASEAN countries. The relatively low tax ratio observed in this context indicates the low level of understanding and compliance with tax obligations, especially among small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This research applies a quantitative approach involving a survey of SME taxpayers. A structured questionnaire was given to 395 SMEs randomly and as eligible. Respondents were taken from the third largest city in Indonesia, namely Medan City. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used in this research with Smart PLS data analysis and goodness of fit test requirements. The study found that Tax Knowledge, Tax Morals, Knowledge of Digital E-Filling on Tax System and Tax Rates positively and significantly influence tax compliance in the SME sector. Practical Implications This study contributes to the existing conceptual framework and provides essential insights into management implications in the field. The findings of this research provide valuable insights for practitioners and the government, indicating that the government has the potential to change existing policies and programs to increase tax compliance among small and medium enterprise (SME) taxpayers in Indonesia.</p> Wilsa Road Betterment Sitepu, Salwani Binti Hj. Arbak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Researcher Positionality: Insights into Studying Doctoral Students' Educational Experiences in South Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">This research note presents an examination of my positionality as a doctoral student conducting a study on the work-life integration of emerging researchers in doctoral studies. Grounded in qualitative inquiry, the research delves into the impact of my individual identity as the researcher and my subjective standpoint in the process of research and comprehension of the social phenomena under scrutiny. Positionality, which encompasses personal expertise, cultural principles, power dynamics, and preconceived notions regarding research, assumes a central role in shaping the perspectives of researchers. By sharing personal reflections and insights, this paper aims to illuminate the complexities and fluidity of positionality in qualitative research. Drawing on a collection of research memoirs, I explore my positionality in studying doctoral experiences in South Africa. The paper highlights the dynamic nature of positionality, revealing shifts in the researcher's identity throughout the study and challenging the notion of a fixed researcher identity.</p> Zama Mabel Mthombeni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 13:43:11 +0000 Predicting Financial Failure in Companies by Employing Machine Learning Methods <p style="text-align: justify;">It is utterly crucial for the companies trading in a country to sustain their activities and the welfare they would deliver to the country’s economy. The worldwide economic globalization and the outbreaks of economic crises adversely influence the economies of the states as well as trading companies. It has become imperative for companies to attain good financial management and to take the vital precautions prior to failure either to prevent the existing companies from being influenced by these crises or to be less affected by them within the framework of all these circumstances. The study aims to generate a prediction and classification model in which the dependent variable, which is generated by taking into account the profit and loss criteria of the companies that maintain their activities, as well as independent variables by considering the generally accepted financial data of 178 manufacturing companies trading in Borsa Istanbul between the years 2015-2019, are used by employing machine learning methods. It also aims to assess the effectiveness of machine learning techniques in predicting failure. By courtesy of the comparative analysis, Machine learning methods of companies operating in Borsa Istanbul yield financially acceptable results in predicting and classifying successful-unsuccessful companies.</p> Safak Sönmez SOYDAS, Handan CAM ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Marketing on Consumers’ Hand. Determinants of Mobile Marketing Adoption Among Aging Population in Tanzania (The Case of Unguja) <p>the comunication revolution has changed the way of life people used to live in. However, youth become mobile savvier than others in socal and business activities.Thus business opt for mobile channel to communicte marketing strategy to the consumers though their hands.Studies investigated user adoption of mobile channel in marketing communicaion fcued on youth and adultswhile there is limited knowledge on factors affecting aging population intention to adopt mobile marketing. Through TAM model extended to incorporate technology anxietyas the additional perception affecting behavioral intention to&nbsp; adopt technology innovation. the cross- sectional survey used to collect data from 384 retired&nbsp; pensioners in Unguja,Tanzania.then anayzed through SEM method.Results shows that all variable have direct effect except attitude variable rather have a significant partial mediation role between aging percpetions and their intetion to adopt mobile marketing. from the results it was suggested that business should focus of technology anxiety&nbsp; such that to provide necessary information for the predetermined risk and not neccesarily to build positive attitude of the channel. these findings have paramount implication and value to mobile marekting vendor to prepare marekting strategies to win bigger market share.</p> Nuru Maulid Haji, Nasra Kara, Salum Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 14:43:24 +0000 Weathering the Storm Through School-Based Teacher Professional Development <p style="text-align: justify;">With the advent of COVID-19 and its control regulations, most schools, particularly in rural areas, suspended teaching and learning and had yet to make an immediate plan on how to continue with the academic programme. This revealed the failure of the South African education system to step up to different and unfamiliar territories of teaching and learning in order to continue with the academic program amidst a pandemic and beyond. Responding to the question: What are the experiences of teachers and school principals in implementing SBTPD in rural contexts to survive potential crises that disrupt the teaching and learning program? Embedded in the adult learning theory, the paper was underpinned by the interpretive qualitative approach and used a multiple case study as a mode of inquiry. This study generated data in two rural primary schools through focus group discussions (FGDs) and face-to-face interviews with teachers and school principals, respectively. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the researched schools did not have customised teacher development programmes tailored to the specific needs of their schools. The findings further revealed that there was a lack of intraschool and interschool collaborative cultures among the teachers. This paper concludes that SBTPD needs to be understood and conceptualized differently by all stakeholders if schools are to be able to withstand and survive beyond immediate crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the findings, this paper recommends that schools initiate and design their own school-based teacher professional development programmes, tailor-made to the needs of the schools and teachers, to accommodate immediate crises and survive beyond unprecedented crises to ensure that the academic programme is not disrupted, and capacity building for school leaders to create a collaborative culture among teachers.</p> Buhle Stella Nhlumayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 15:00:06 +0000 Perceived Effectiveness of Online Learning for Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in a Rural University During the Covid-19 Pandemic <p style="text-align: justify;">In this article, we delve into the engagements of second-year mathematics pre-service teachers at a rural university who had to adapt to online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Through purposeful sampling and a questionnaire, we gathered quantitative data on how students coped with online learning engagements during that challenging time. Unfortunately, educational institutions in socio-economically challenged communities that lack resources contribute to education disparities. The pandemic has had an even greater impact on vulnerable populations residing in rural areas due to their limited access to online learning. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework was adopted as a lens to guide this study. UDL emphasises inclusivity in diverse rural demographics in South Africa through multiple means of engagement, action, and expression. To mitigate the learning disruptions, several online platforms such as radio, television, social media, Blackboard, Moodle, Zoom, and Skype were used. However, rural universities faced challenges when transitioning to online mathematics learning. The null hypotheses were rejected, suggesting that there is an effect of online learning engagements on mathematics pre-service teachers’ overall level of challenges and expectations of the second-year mathematics education module during the pandemic in a rural university. Findings range from less access to data and poor network reception in most areas, lack of engagement among students, and untimely as well as inadequate feedback with less support from lecturers. We recommend that policymakers should prioritise providing equal access to online education to empower underprivileged students, especially female students, and marginalised communities. As lecturers continue to adapt and fine-tune their approach, the future offers promising opportunities for an effective and efficient online mathematics teaching experience to enhance better online learning engagements. Furthermore, we advocate for policies that foster inclusivity, enhance learning outcomes, and empower teachers in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) era.</p> Kereng Gilbert Pule, Mbazima Amos Ngoveni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sexual Dysfunction associated with Alcohol Abuse Among Male Adults: A Literature Review <p style="text-align: justify;">This literature review delves into the significant issue of sexual dysfunction resulting from alcohol abuse among adult males in South Africa. There is a dearth of studies&nbsp;on sexual dysfunction caused by chronic alcohol use. With alcohol consumption being a widespread and culturally ingrained behavior in the region, this study examines the existing body of research to elucidate the complex relationship between alcohol abuse and sexual problems in men. Articles were searched from scientific search engines such as CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed, Medline, APA Psych and INFO as well as manual searches through Google and Google Scholar search engines. Both quantitative and qualitative studies that showed the sexual dysfunction associated with alcohol abuse among male adults were included. A total of 95 articles were screened, and 8 full-text articles were ultimately included in the review. The review reveals a strong association between alcohol abuse and various forms of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction, diminished sexual desire, and performance anxiety. The detrimental effects of alcohol on the male sexual functioning are multifaceted, involving physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. This literature review offers a thorough examination of the significant concern of sexual dysfunction arising from alcohol abuse in adult males. It underscores the necessity of acknowledging and addressing the intricate relationship between alcohol use and sexual health to formulate effective prevention and treatment strategies. The study advocates for additional research on the same topic, emphasizing the need to inform healthcare professionals, policymakers, and researchers. The ultimate objective is to enhance the sexual health and overall well-being of men through evidence-based insights and targeted interventions.</p> Hulisani Matakanye ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 21:43:45 +0000 Reimagining STEM Education in South Africa: Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge Systems Through the M-Know Model for Curriculum Enhancement <p style="text-align: justify;">This conceptual paper investigates the integration of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) into South African Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education, exploring its conceptions, historical roots, significance, and the challenges and benefits associated with such integration. The objective was to understand the role of IKS in enriching STEM education and its potential contributions to global scientific knowledge. A culturally sensitive research approach was employed, with criteria set for selecting relevant literature on IKS and STEM. The results highlighted the profound historical significance of IKS in South Africa and its potential in bridging cultural gaps in education. Pedagogical innovations rooted in indigenous practices were identified as key to revitalising the STEM learning experience. However, challenges such as educational barriers, policy constraints, and institutional norms were also noted. Thus, the Multiple-ways of knowing (M-Know) model is proposed to demonstrate the possibility of using an integrated approach for the inclusion of IKS and enhancement of the STEM higher education school curriculum in South Africa. The model negotiates for a synergic or integrated arrangement between formal STEM curriculum and IKS in terms of using IKS to interrogate, complement, and consolidate the contents and pedagogy of Westernised STEM education in higher education.</p> Godson Chinenye Nwokocha, Dagogo Legg-Jack ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Migration and Mission: A Study of Philip’s ministry in Samaria (Acts 8) <p style="text-align: justify;">The Christian church exists to fulfill the Great Commission of making disciples of all nations (Matt. 28:19-20 and its parallels). The inauguration of the church on the day of Pentecost and the empowerment of the disciples through the infilling of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1-6) equipped the church for a worldwide mission. The book of the Acts of the Apostles recounts incidents of persecution that drove the disciples out of Jerusalem to live in other places as refugees and missionaries. In the contemporary Ghanaian context where migration is a common phenomenon, the church can learn from the missional consequences of the migration of the early Christians. Yet, not much scholarly attention has been given to this subject, especially from an African perspective. This research, therefore, examined the correlation between migration and Spirit-empowered mission based on Philip’s ministry in Samaria recorded in Acts 8. The paper is a non-empirical study that gathered data from journal articles, books, Bible commentaries and dissertations/thesis. The methodology comprised an examination of historical and literary contexts of the text; literary analysis, lexicology (the meaning of words), morphology (the form of words), grammatical function of words (parts of speech), syntax (the relationships of words) and figures of speech. The main argument is that Christianity is a migratory religion and therefore, believing migrants should consider their situation as an opportunity to fulfill the Great Commission. The paper contributes to New Testament scholarship and mission studies.</p> Isaac Boaheng, Joseph Gyanvi Blay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Legal Protection for Cooperative Retail Businesses Against Conspiracy (Study on Primkoppol Akpol Cooperative) <p style="text-align: justify;">In business life or business activities, there is business competition that occurs between business actors. This business competition is normal if it is carried out in a healthy manner. However, in practical activities in the field there are still many unfair business competition practices in the world of business competition carried out by business actors in their business activities. This type of unfair business competition practice is the practice of conspiracy. One of the victims of the conspiratorial practices that occurred in the field was the Primkoppol Akpol cooperative business actor. This legal research aims to explain the types of unfair business competition practices that occur in the field and explain the legal remedies that can be taken if unfair business competition practices occur in the field in order to create healthy business competition in business competition activities between business actors in Indonesia.</p> Boni Kristobaik Simangunsong, Bambang Eko Turisno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2024 21:37:49 +0000